1. The Effect of an Atmosphere in Providing the Known Mean Temperature
As indicated above, the attempt to demonstrate a 'greenhouse effect' falls far short of being a significant scientific analysis of this extremely important change in the temperature which of course is typical of those which have taken place over millions of years with extreme and long periods of freezing conditions in the so-called 'Ice Ages' duting which the mean temperature has fallen somewhere to between 281 K and 278 K (between 7 and 10 (0C) lower than current temperatures. The effect of the atmosphere and soil in retaining heat and thus temperature are now considered in which the air in particular retains heat with a thermal capacitance of about 1035 Jm -3K-1. Temperatures in the vicinity of 310 K induced in the top 50 cm of soil and in the lower metres of air by midday in the tropics and of 287 K at much higher latitudes, involve excess energies above those for their corresponding mean temperatures of about 280 K and 388 K respectively, of up to 3.0 x107 Joules in the earth, 6.0 x 107 Joules and 25,000 Joules in the lowest meter of air per square metre. With corresponding surface radiation of about 350 Wm -2 , it will thus require a time of the order of 3.0x107/350 = 8.6x103 seconds, or 86/3.6 = 23 hours for this to fully dissipate.
2. A rotating Planet
In this figure, the rotating earth is warmed under the sun during the approximately twelve hour day for which the maximum intensity of the radiation at the top of the atmosphere is 1,368 Wm-2 with very little variation, while its intensity at the surface of the soil/sea is approximately 975.6 Wm-2. This reduction in intensity, defined through the value of the "albedo" of about 0.71, results from reflection or scattering of the sunlight back to space by clouds and small particulate matter (aerosols) suspended in the air with some very small proportion of the energy being absorbed by the atmosphere at very short wavelengths (UV) and through contact between the pure air and the warmed matter of the aerosols. Very little of this radiation appears to be absorbed by any greenhouse gas.
The action of the radiation as it impinges on the soil and vegetation, is very different from its behaviour over the oceans from which about 4% is reflected at the surface, the approximate value of the absorption and emissivity factors, which always exactly equal for all materials. Over the soil, the sun it heats the very top layer, the "skin", from where the absorbed energy has three escape routes - radiation at infra-red wavelengths of about1 to 100 microns, conduction into the air through contact at the surface and similarly through the soil to provide a net cooling rate the maxima of which correspond in all cases to the hottest part of the day which occurs subsequent to the intensity of sunlight reaching its peak.
While some of the radiation is absorbed in specific bands of the greenhouse gas spectra, the heating of the air occurs most efficiently through mutual contact with the surface skin of the soil which induces significant micro-turbulence and convection to mix the energy with higher layers of all the atmospheric gases. As the molecules rise in response to their being in now warmer and thus lighter parcels of air and through their individual distribution of kinetic energy, energy is transformed through their movement against the earth's gravitational field of g = 9.8 ms-2, which reduces their temperature T as defined by their individual kinetic energies. Increasing their potential energy, mgx, where m is their mass and x represents the distance moved upwards, results in a reduction of their temperature at a rate of approximately 9.8 Kkm-1, which is referred to as the 'dry adiabatic lapse rate'. However, under conditions of high circulation of air from the tropics to the mid-latitudes, the total energy remains constant except for the loss through radiation to space from greenhouse gases. Were it not for the large-scale circulation developed by this rising convection, the mean distribution of molecular energy over the sphere of the upper troposphere would be similar to that at ground level.
The characteristics of the biosphere are obviously dependent on the temperature near ground level and corresponding to the known mean temperature of 288 K being an average global temperature over both hemispheres, measured at a height of approximately a metre above the surface of the soil, during both day and night, while varying significantly over the full range of temperature variations related to latitude.
As clearly shown by many simultaneous measurements of temperatures on the soil's skin and about 1.2 m above over several consecutive days, it is shown that the lowest layers of air in the atmosphere are heated at about midday to a temperature equivalent to that of the soils surface skin. As this skin temperature cools over the following afternoon, the air retains at a higher temperature which persists in the lower layers of the atmosphere throughout the night, maintaining in this way a mean temperature which is only a little lower than that established during daylight hours, a temperature measured to be 288 K (15 0C), Thus, while the IPCC's artificial Effective Emission Temperature may be obtained from measurements of the temperature of the cooler skin of the soil, the meaningful temperatures over the whole planet are represented by the mean as measured in the lowest layer of the atmosphere,
The mean temperature of the globe, 288 K, is thus the result of retention of heat by the atmosphere over the full daily period of 24 hours, just as energy is retained by large masses of air which move over the continents as heat waves, providing high temperatures in southern Australia and the well known summer warming of regions close to the Arctic circle of up to 40 as occurs annually in the USSR at Novosibirsk, for which winter temperatures fall by contrast to -40 0C. It is noted here that the effect of the atmosphere in retaining heat over night has nothing to do with greenhouse gases which, by contrast, continue to cool the atmosphere by radiation from the upper atmosphere towards the 3 K "surface" of the space surrounding our earth.
3. The Absence of the Claimed Effect of Greenhouse Gases
It is quite obvious from the discussion above which clearly demonstrates the absence of ANY effect from greenhouse gasses, that any changes in the temperature of the globe are the result of purely natural changes. As shown by Svensmark, a very experienced astrophysicist from Denmark, the changes in the characteristics of the solar wind and other aspects of the sun's characteristics which do not necessarily include any variations in its basic intensity, produce very clearly related variations in the earth's temperature.
It is also very obvious and well understood, that variations in the pacific temperature distributions which define the states of La Nina and El Nino, provide for significant changes in global temperatures. Thes variations in the distribution of energy in the oceans and land on the surface of the globe involve relatively small changes in temperature and the areas over which these take place. Similar as yet unrecognised changes in the distribution of energy on the global surface, on land or in the oceans, which arise from tidal and circulation changes in both the atmosphere and the oceans have the potential to produce very significant variations in the mean temperature of the earth. The regularity of the appearance of Ice Ages which occur with constant reductions in Earth's temperature every 100,000 years demonstrate a cyclical behaviour which is most unlikely to be limited to this singular long period. The existence of much shorter and more complex cycles related to atmospheric tidal behaviour, the gravitational effects of the moon and of the other planets in our solar system, as well as the constant and very large variation in the position of the centre of gravity of the entire solar system provide for the potential for large changes in the characteristics of both the atmosphere and the oceans which relate to the mean temperature of the earth, quite independent of the total energy retained by the soil and the atmosphere which may also vary through changes in rates of radiation from the surface in different regions.
It is thus undeniable that the significant mean temperature of the globe is dependent solely on the retention of heat by the soil and the atmosphere over a long period exceedin 24 hours, in exact consistency with the average temperature of heated water placed in a high quality vacuum flask where the temperature close to 100 0C will be measured over a period of 24 hours.