Figure 1. This shows the spherical model of the earth which is used by the IPCC to try to demonstrate that carbon dioxide contributes to the temperarure of the planet by a total of 33 0C after augmentation by additional water vapour following this warming. As can be seen, this model which is defined as having no greenhouse gases, has no soil, water or air (Oxygen, Nitrogen, Argon) or other inert gases.
The Basic Claim that "Carbon Dioxide Warms the Globe", is based upon a false model of the earth which is shown in Figure 1. of Section 2 below. It was designed by Professor Syokuro Manabe in about 1985 and is used to try to demonstrate that this gas increases the temperature of Earth by absorbing, as it does, infrared radiation emittted from the warm surface skin of the solar heated soil during both daylight hours and at night. The most significant absorption takes place through spectral lines the wavelenghs of which are in the region of the 15 micron (667 cm -1) band of CO2, with less absorption through the weaker lines in bands at about 4 and 10 microns. Effects of other absorbing gases such as water vapour (the most significant), methane and nitrous oxide as well as some minor players add to the perceived problems arising from such absorption in various parts of the spectrum covered by the radiation from about 1 micron to 100 microns.
This picture which claims to present a 'greenhouse-gas-free-Earth' is misleading, presenting a totally impossible weightless model and an equivalently, quite incorrect, process of physial analysis.
Unfortunately, it has served its purpose well and has been very successful over many years, during which time even some less competent physicists have been persuaded to accept this quite cleverly designed, but physically implausible 'model', of a greenhouse-gas-free earth.
As indicated in the diagtram, Figure 1. below, this consists of a weightless black sphere, sans soil, sans air, sans everything. It presents to the sun a surface which has no thermodynamic properties of any kind except to instantaneously re-radiate all of the solar energy received!
In stark contrast, a realistic model with thermodynamically active materials, soil, sea and air, retains much if not most of the heat energy received throughout the afternoon and later, providing the temperatures which we experience overnight and which we enjoy as being only some 2 0C to 20 0C below the daytime maxima depending on latitude and of course the season and the weather.
Any realistic model of our earth MUST surely include a solid sphere of material having whatever mixed properties the surface of that sphere may present including 70% of it being salt water and ice, the other 30% being bare dry soil and sand, forests, grassy flats and hills. The characteristics of these surfaces are varied but they are all thermodynamically active with the characteristic of being able to absorb and retain significant heat, their capacitances ranging from 4.2 x 106 Jkg-1 down to about 5.0 x 105 Jkg -1for water and soil respectively, with some obvious variations for different materials such as sand and with the inclusion of forests and other vegetable growth.
In spite of these different characteristics of soil and water, the surfaces of both submit to very similar mean temperatures under the sun dependent of course on latitude, retaining heat according to their varying capacitances which maintain their unique temperatures to a very large degree during the night. Through each night, radiation (infra-red) from all materials and evaporation from water (via the loss of latent heat to the vapour being 2.268 x 106 Jkg-1) continue to cool that surface and the material below, commencing even before the sun has fully set and dependent on its local emissivity and thermal conductivity. Through contact between its lowest layer and the skin of the soil, the air also cools slowly overnight, the transfer of energy being inhibited by the very low conductivity of air, there being no turbulence or convection under the conditions now of a temperature inversion with a cooler lower layer.
3. The Weightless, Substance-Free Model Earth
For the weightless black shell model described above and shown in Figures 1., 2., and 3., devoid of any material substance which would absorb and retain heat from the sun, the assumption is made that all of the sun's energy is radiated during daylight hours. From this, a temperature distribution quite different from that which is measured at the surface of our globe, is created, having a constant value that defies the actual varying distribution of the intensity of heat from the sun arising naturally from the differences in the angles of impinging radiation at the various lattitudes between the tropical and polar regions. A specifically defined uniform temperature which would radiate immediately all of the energy received on the earth's surface from solar radiation. This temperature is referred to as the "Effective Emission Temperature" (EET), which is constant, simply by definition, in all surface areas from the equator to the poles over the hemisphere wich is receiving sunlight - during daylight hours. The temperatiure on the night side is defined to be at absolute zero - 0.0 K or -273 (0C - which follows from the very simplistic form of the artificially defined substance free model..
The next step in this bizarre process is to "stretch" the EET over both hemispheres from which of course it is reduced, reverting to a constant value of 254.9 K (-18 0C) - again a bizarre definition of "temperature" being equal at all points from the Equator to the Poles as indicated in Figure 3.
From here the idea of the Greenhouse Effect is introduced to provide, not another extended uniform temperature, but now a 'mean' temperature with its well known large differences between the tropical and polar regions. In order to very coveniently obtain the required and known 288 K (15 0C) "mean" from the artificial "EET" of 255 K, atmospheric carbon dioxide at a density of about 250 'parts per milliom by volume' (ppmv) which is estimated for its density prior to the industrial revolution, has been assumed to provide an additional 10 to 20 K (0C) at the earh's surface. This addition is assumed to raise the surface temperature giving rise in turn to increases in atmospheric water vapour which is also regarded as a greenhouse gas causing a further increase by something between 23 K (0C) and 13 K (0C) as required to convert this lower Effective Emission Temperature of 255 K into the same value as the known Mean Temperature of 288 K as mentioned above.
This whole process appears as an artificial, non-scientific approach which is very easily shown to be a completely false demonstration of the unnecessarily defined "Greenhouse Effect". The link below provides a full description of the physical processes involving the retenthion of heat by the atmosphere in a similar manner to those which lead to the formation of heatwaves, in which larger bodies of hot air often move thousands of kilometres, producing excessive warmth to cooler regions of the planet over several days and often for more than a.week. Familiar examples occur in Australia where masses of air from the inland deserts move to the other-wise much cooler regions of Victoria and Soth Australia. Similarly, in Siberia, where winter temperatures at Novosibirsk for example fall as low as -40 0C with summer reaching as high as 40 0C and average July temperatures being in the vicinity of 25 0C. For further details of the thermodynamic processes and involving correct and verifiable physics which provides for the known global temperature without fictitious manipulations checkthe link below.
2. A Weightless, Substance Free Model to Represent the Absence of Greenhouse Gases
Unfortunately, this very simple model shown in Figure 1, believed to have been constructed by Syukuro Manabe of the University of Princeton in the US and who recently received the Nobel Prize for the construction of the early climate models of the atmosphere, does not represent in any way the material form of the earth as it would be simply in the absence of greenhouse gases. Without soil, oceans and air (a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen, totally inert with respect to sunlight, except in the region of the vacuum ultravioet, and to infra-red radiation from the ground), this weightless black shell model does not provide any of the characteristics which could provide for the retention of heat energy. It accepts that ALL energy from the sun is reradiated instantaneously, leading to a totally unrealistic theoretical situation in which the night side of the earth has a temperature from sundown to sunup of zero Kelvin (-273 0C). On the sunlit side, the mean temperature of this Earth is easily shown to be the same as is known for the planet from measurements - 288 K (15 0C). On the other hand, the only energy defined in the calcualtions accepted by the IPCC, is the so-called Effective Emission Temperature (EET) which defines an unreal, unachievable pseudo-temperature which is distributed uniformally across the whole of the sunlit surface in the first instance with a value of 303 K (30 0C) simply representing that temperature so-distributed, which would exactly and instantaneously radiate the energy received from the sun. Subsequently, this contrived EET is redistributed over the whole earth with a value of 254.9 K ( 0C), 33 K less than the known temperature of 288 K.
Figure 2. Demonstrating the absence of any substance or retained energy on the night side of the IPCC model of a greenhouse gas free earth - a weightless shell. Even though the actual temperatures on the side of the sun varies according to the angle of the earth's surface, at variousw latitudes, to particular rays of the sun because of the curvature of the shell, the EET (defined above) is taken as a constant over the whole area of the hemisphere being 255 K in the tropics and at the poles.
Figure 3. Repesenting the "artificially stretched" Effective Emission Temperature distribution to cover both sides of the weightless earth which is now assumed to radiate sunlight arriving onto the sunlit hemisphere from both sides of this earth. The EET required for this feat is only about 255 K.
Even with no air to support clouds or aerosols, this IPCC model still takes account of these features of the 'real' atmosphere to reduce its solar intensity by a factor of 0.7, the so-called albedo, through reflection, absorption and scattering which reduces the effective solar intensity at ground level to 976.5 Wm -2 from the intial 1,368 Wm -2 which reaches the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from the sun,150,000,000 km away and at a surfae temperature of around 6,000 K and with a diameter of 39 million kilometres.